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    "results": [
        {
            "article_id": 2103,
            "title": "Non-ambulatory measures of lower extremity sensorimotor function are associated with walking function in Multiple Sclerosis",
            "summary": "<h2>Abstract</h2><h3>Background</h3><p>Disease progression of multiple sclerosis (MS) is often monitored by ambulatory measures, but how non-ambulatory sensorimotor measures differentially associate to walking measures in MS subtypes is unknown. We determined whether there are characteristic differences between relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), progressive MS (PMS), and non-MS controls in lower extremity sensorimotor function and clinical walking tasks and the sensorimotor associations with walking function in each group.</p><h3>Methods</h3><p>18 RRMS, 13 PMS and 28 non-MS control participants were evaluated in their plantar cutaneous sensitivity (vibration perception threshold, Volts), proprioception during ankle joint position-matching (|∆°| in dorsiflexion), motor coordination (rapid foot-tap count/10 s), and walking function with three tests: Timed 25-foot walk (T25FW) at preferred and fast speeds (s), and timed-up-and-go (TUG, s).</p><h3>Results</h3><p>Foot-tapping (<i>p</i> = 0.039, Mean difference (MD)= 5.65 taps) and plantar cutaneous sensation (<i>p</i> = 0.026, MD=-10.30 V) differed between the MS subtypes. For the RRMS group faster walking was related to better proprioceptive function (preferred T25FW: <i>p</i> = 0.019, Root mean square error (RMSE)=1.94; fast T25FW: <i>p</i> = 0.004, RMSE=1.65; TUG: <i>p</i> = 0.001, RMSE=2.12) and foot-tap performance (preferred T25FW: <i>p</i> = 0.033, RMSE = 2.74; fast T25FW: <i>p</i> = 0.010, RMSE=2.02). These associations were not observed in the PMS group.</p><h3>Conclusions</h3><p>Foot-tap performance and plantar cutaneous sensitivity but not ankle proprioception differed between MS subtypes. Lower walking performance was associated with lower foot-tapping and plantar cutaneous sensitivity in the RRMS but not the PMS group. This result suggests a change in the relationship of lower extremity sensorimotor function to walking performance in the PMS subtype.</p>",
            "link": "https://www.msard-journal.com/article/S2211-0348(21)00318-7/fulltext",
            "published_date": "2021-05-28T23:00:00Z",
            "source": "MS & Rel. Disorders",
            "publisher": "Elsevier BV",
            "container_title": "Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders",
            "authors": [
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/834/",
                    "family_name": "Ionete",
                    "given_name": "Carolina",
                    "ORCID": null
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/21279/",
                    "family_name": "Sato",
                    "given_name": "Sumire",
                    "ORCID": "http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1167-1091"
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/21280/",
                    "family_name": "Buonaccorsi",
                    "given_name": "John",
                    "ORCID": null
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/21281/",
                    "family_name": "Miehm",
                    "given_name": "Jules D.",
                    "ORCID": null
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/21282/",
                    "family_name": "Lim",
                    "given_name": "Jongil",
                    "ORCID": null
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/21283/",
                    "family_name": "Rajala",
                    "given_name": "Caitlin",
                    "ORCID": null
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/21284/",
                    "family_name": "Khalighinejad",
                    "given_name": "Farnaz",
                    "ORCID": null
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/21285/",
                    "family_name": "Kent",
                    "given_name": "Jane A.",
                    "ORCID": null
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/21286/",
                    "family_name": "van Emmerik",
                    "given_name": "Richard E.A.",
                    "ORCID": null
                }
            ],
            "relevant": null,
            "ml_prediction_gnb": false,
            "ml_prediction_lr": false,
            "discovery_date": "2021-05-29T11:14:19Z",
            "noun_phrases": [
                "Non-ambulatory measures",
                "lower extremity sensorimotor function",
                "walking function",
                "Multiple Sclerosis"
            ],
            "doi": "10.1016/j.msard.2021.103051",
            "access": "restricted",
            "takeaways": " Relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), progressive MS (PMS), and non-MS controls evaluated lower extremity sensorimotor function and clinical walking tasks . For the RRMS group faster walking was related to better proprioceptive function . These associations were not observed in the PMS group . Lower walking performance was associated with lower foot-tapping and plantar cutaneous sensitivity ."
        },
        {
            "article_id": 2102,
            "title": "Protective effect of alamandine on doxorubicin‑induced nephrotoxicity in rats",
            "summary": "Background: This study aimed to evaluate the protective effects of alamandine, a new member of the angiotensin family, against doxorubicin (DOX)-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.MethodsRats were intraperitoneally injected with DOX (3.750 mg/kg/week) to reach a total cumulative dose of 15 mg/kg by day 35. Alamandine (50 µg/kg/day) was administered to the rats via mini-osmotic pumps for 42 days. At the end of the experiment, rats were placed in the metabolic cages for 24 h so that their water intake and urine output could be measured. After scarification, the rats’ serum and kidney tissues were collected, and biochemical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical studies were carried out.ResultsDOX administration yielded increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, pro-fibrotic proteins transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), pro-inflammatory transcription factor nuclear kappa B (NF-κB), kidney malondialdehyde (MDA), creatinine clearance, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and water intake. On the other hand, the DOX-treated group exhibited decreased renal superoxide dismutase (SOD), renal glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, and urinary output. Alamandine co-therapy decreased these effects, as confirmed by histopathology and immunohistochemical analysis.ConclusionsThe results suggest that alamandine can prevent nephrotoxicity induced by DOX‎ in rats.",
            "link": "https://bmcpharmacoltoxicol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40360-021-00494-x",
            "published_date": "2021-05-28T23:00:00Z",
            "source": "BioMedCentral",
            "publisher": "Springer Science and Business Media LLC",
            "container_title": "BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology",
            "authors": [
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/36605/",
                    "family_name": "Soltani Hekmat",
                    "given_name": "Ava",
                    "ORCID": null
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/36606/",
                    "family_name": "Chenari",
                    "given_name": "Ameneh",
                    "ORCID": null
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/36607/",
                    "family_name": "Alipanah",
                    "given_name": "Hiva",
                    "ORCID": null
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/36608/",
                    "family_name": "Javanmardi",
                    "given_name": "Kazem",
                    "ORCID": null
                }
            ],
            "relevant": null,
            "ml_prediction_gnb": false,
            "ml_prediction_lr": false,
            "discovery_date": "2021-05-29T10:48:23Z",
            "noun_phrases": [
                "Protective effect",
                "alamandine",
                "doxorubicin‑induced nephrotoxicity",
                "rats"
            ],
            "doi": "10.1186/s40360-021-00494-x",
            "access": "open",
            "takeaways": " Alamandine (50 µg/kg/day) was administered to rats via mini-osmotic pumps for 42 days . DOX administration yielded increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, pro-fibrotic proteins transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and TNF-β ."
        },
        {
            "article_id": 2101,
            "title": "Clinico-radiologic features and therapeutic strategies in tumefactive demyelination: a retrospective analysis of 50 consecutive cases",
            "summary": "<div><p>Ther Adv Neurol Disord. 2021 May 18;14:17562864211006503. doi: 10.1177/17562864211006503. eCollection 2021.</p><p><b>ABSTRACT</b></p><p xmlns:mml=\"http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML\" xmlns:p1=\"http://pubmed.gov/pub-one\" xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\">AIMS: Our goal was to expand the spectrum of clinico-radiologic characteristics and the possible therapeutic choices in patients with tumefactive demyelinating lesions (TDLs).</p><p xmlns:mml=\"http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML\" xmlns:p1=\"http://pubmed.gov/pub-one\" xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\">METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 50 patients with at least one TDL was performed at an academic neurology center (2008-2020).</p><p xmlns:mml=\"http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML\" xmlns:p1=\"http://pubmed.gov/pub-one\" xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\">RESULTS: Our cohort comprised mostly women (33/50) with a mean age of 38 years at TDL onset. The mean follow-up time was 76 months. The mean Expanded Disability Status Scale score at TDL onset and at the latest neurological evaluation was 3.7 and 2.3, respectively. We subcategorized the patients into seven groups based mainly on the clinical/radiological findings and disease course. Group A included patients presenting with a Marburg-like TDL (<i>n</i> = 4). Groups B and C comprised patients presenting with monophasic (<i>n</i> = 7) and recurrent TDLs (<i>n</i> = 12), respectively. Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients who subsequently developed TDL (<i>n</i> = 16) during the disease course were categorized as Group D. Group E comprised patients who initially presented with TDL and subsequently developed a classical relapsing-remitting MS without further evidence of TDL (<i>n</i> = 5). Groups F (<i>n</i> = 2) and G (<i>n</i> = 4) involved MS patients who developed TDL during drug initiation (natalizumab, fingolimod) and cessation (interferon, fingolimod), respectively. Regarding long-term treatments applied after corticosteroid administration in the acute phase, B-cell-directed therapies were shown to be highly effective especially in cases with recurrent TDLs. Cyclophosphamide was spared for more aggressive disease indicated by a poor response to corticosteroids and plasma exchange failure.</p><p xmlns:mml=\"http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML\" xmlns:p1=\"http://pubmed.gov/pub-one\" xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\">CONCLUSION: Tumefactive central nervous system demyelination is an heterogenous disease; its stratification into distinct groups according to different phenotypes can establish more efficient treatment strategies, thus improving clinical outcomes in the future.</p><p>PMID:<a href=\"https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34046086/?utm_source=Other&amp;utm_medium=rss&amp;utm_campaign=pubmed-2&amp;utm_content=10guX6I3SqrbUeeLKSTD6FCRM44ewnrN2MKKTQLLPMHB4xNsZU&amp;fc=20210216052009&amp;ff=20210529054008&amp;v=2.14.4\">34046086</a> | PMC:<a href=\"https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/PMC8135218/?utm_source=Other&amp;utm_medium=rss&amp;utm_campaign=pubmed-2&amp;utm_content=10guX6I3SqrbUeeLKSTD6FCRM44ewnrN2MKKTQLLPMHB4xNsZU&amp;fc=20210216052009&amp;ff=20210529054008&amp;v=2.14.4\">PMC8135218</a> | DOI:<a href=\"https://doi.org/10.1177/17562864211006503\">10.1177/17562864211006503</a></p></div>",
            "link": "https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34046086/#x3D;Other&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=10guX6I3SqrbUeeLKSTD6FCRM44ewnrN2MKKTQLLPMHB4xNsZU&fc&#x",
            "published_date": "2021-05-17T23:00:00Z",
            "source": "PubMed",
            "publisher": "SAGE Publications",
            "container_title": "Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders",
            "authors": [
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/1271/",
                    "family_name": "Tzanetakos",
                    "given_name": "Dimitrios",
                    "ORCID": "http://orcid.org/0000-0001-8925-3327"
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/1275/",
                    "family_name": "Velonakis",
                    "given_name": "Georgios",
                    "ORCID": null
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/1281/",
                    "family_name": "Toulas",
                    "given_name": "Panagiotis",
                    "ORCID": null
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/1283/",
                    "family_name": "Koutsis",
                    "given_name": "Georgios",
                    "ORCID": null
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/1284/",
                    "family_name": "Anagnostouli",
                    "given_name": "Maria",
                    "ORCID": "http://orcid.org/0000-0001-8934-670X"
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/1285/",
                    "family_name": "Stefanis",
                    "given_name": "Leonidas",
                    "ORCID": null
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/3511/",
                    "family_name": "Vakrakou",
                    "given_name": "Aigli G.",
                    "ORCID": null
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/3513/",
                    "family_name": "Evangelopoulos",
                    "given_name": "Maria-Eleptheria",
                    "ORCID": null
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/3514/",
                    "family_name": "Andreadou",
                    "given_name": "Elissavet",
                    "ORCID": null
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/3515/",
                    "family_name": "Dimitrakopoulos",
                    "given_name": "Antonios",
                    "ORCID": null
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/3516/",
                    "family_name": "Gialafos",
                    "given_name": "Elias",
                    "ORCID": null
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/3517/",
                    "family_name": "Tzartos",
                    "given_name": "John S.",
                    "ORCID": null
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/3520/",
                    "family_name": "Kilidireas",
                    "given_name": "Constantinos",
                    "ORCID": null
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/46153/",
                    "family_name": "Argyrakos",
                    "given_name": "Theodore",
                    "ORCID": null
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/46154/",
                    "family_name": "Psimenou",
                    "given_name": "Erasmia",
                    "ORCID": null
                }
            ],
            "relevant": null,
            "ml_prediction_gnb": false,
            "ml_prediction_lr": false,
            "discovery_date": "2021-05-29T09:40:10Z",
            "noun_phrases": [
                "Clinico-radiologic features",
                "therapeutic strategies",
                "tumefactive demyelination",
                "a retrospective analysis",
                "50 consecutive cases"
            ],
            "doi": "10.1177/17562864211006503",
            "access": "open",
            "takeaways": " A retrospective analysis of 50 patients with at least one TDL was performed at an academic neurology center (2008-2020) The mean follow-up time was 76 months and the mean Expanded Disability Status Scale score was 3.7 and 2.3 ."
        },
        {
            "article_id": 2100,
            "title": "Investigating Acoustic Correlates of Intelligibility Gains and Losses During Slowed Speech: A Hybridization Approach",
            "summary": "<jats:sec>\n<jats:title>Purpose</jats:title>\n<jats:p>This exploratory study sought to identify acoustic variables explaining rate-related variation in intelligibility for speakers with dysarthria secondary to multiple sclerosis.</jats:p>\n</jats:sec>\n<jats:sec>\n<jats:title>Method</jats:title>\n<jats:p>\n              Seven speakers with dysarthria due to multiple sclerosis produced the same set of Harvard sentences at habitual and slow rates. Speakers were selected from a larger corpus on the basis of rate-related intelligibility characteristics. Four speakers demonstrated improved intelligibility and three speakers demonstrated reduced intelligibility when rate was slowed. A speech analysis resynthesis paradigm termed\n              <jats:italic>hybridization</jats:italic>\n              was used to create stimuli in which segmental (i.e., short-term spectral) and suprasegmental variables (i.e., sentence-level fundamental frequency, energy characteristics, and duration) of sentences produced at the slow rate were donated individually or in combination to habitually produced sentences. Online crowdsourced orthographic transcription was used to quantify intelligibility for six hybridized sentence types and the original habitual and slow productions.\n            </jats:p>\n</jats:sec>\n<jats:sec>\n<jats:title>Results</jats:title>\n<jats:p>Sentence duration alone was not a contributing factor to improved intelligibility associated with slowed rate. Speakers whose intelligibility improved with slowed rate showed higher intelligibility scores for duration spectrum hybrids and energy hybrids compared to the original habitual rate sentences, suggesting these acoustic cues contributed to improved intelligibility for sentences produced with a slowed rate. Energy contour characteristics were also found to play a role in intelligibility losses for speakers with decreased intelligibility at slowed rate. The relative contribution of speech acoustic variables to intelligibility gains and losses varied considerably between speakers.</jats:p>\n</jats:sec>\n<jats:sec>\n<jats:title>Conclusions</jats:title>\n<jats:p>Hybridization can be used to identify acoustic correlates of intelligibility variation associated with slowed rate. This approach has further elucidated speaker-specific and individualized speech production adjustments when slowing rate.</jats:p>\n</jats:sec>",
            "link": "https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34048663/#x3D;Other&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=10guX6I3SqrbUeeLKSTD6FCRM44ewnrN2MKKTQLLPMHB4xNsZU&fc&#x",
            "published_date": "2021-06-17T23:00:00Z",
            "source": "PubMed",
            "publisher": "American Speech Language Hearing Association",
            "container_title": "American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology",
            "authors": [
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/44687/",
                    "family_name": "van Brenk",
                    "given_name": "Frits",
                    "ORCID": "http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4777-919X"
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/44689/",
                    "family_name": "Kain",
                    "given_name": "Alexander",
                    "ORCID": "http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5807-9311"
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/44690/",
                    "family_name": "Tjaden",
                    "given_name": "Kris",
                    "ORCID": null
                }
            ],
            "relevant": null,
            "ml_prediction_gnb": false,
            "ml_prediction_lr": false,
            "discovery_date": "2021-05-29T09:40:10Z",
            "noun_phrases": [
                "Acoustic Correlates",
                "Intelligibility Gains",
                "Losses",
                "Slowed Speech",
                "A Hybridization Approach"
            ],
            "doi": "10.1044/2021_AJSLP-20-00172",
            "access": "open",
            "takeaways": " Seven speakers with dysarthria due to multiple sclerosis produced the same set of Harvard sentences at habitual and slow rates . Four speakers demonstrated improved intelligibility and three speakers demonstrated reduced intelligibility when rate was slowed . Hybridization can be used to identify acoustic correlates of intelligibility variation associated with slowed rate ."
        },
        {
            "article_id": 2099,
            "title": "Pain Intensity and Pain Interference in People with Progressive Multiple Sclerosis Compared to People with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis",
            "summary": "<div><p>Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2021 May 25:S0003-9993(21)00393-2. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2021.05.003. Online ahead of print.</p><p><b>ABSTRACT</b></p><p xmlns:mml=\"http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML\" xmlns:p1=\"http://pubmed.gov/pub-one\" xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\">OBJECTIVE: To describe pain intensity and interference in people with progressive multiple sclerosis (MS), compare these to people with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), and identify common and unique factors associated with pain intensity in people with progressive MS and RRMS.</p><p xmlns:mml=\"http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML\" xmlns:p1=\"http://pubmed.gov/pub-one\" xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\">DESIGN: Observational, cross-sectional analysis using baseline data from a longitudinal survey on quality of life in participants with MS.</p><p xmlns:mml=\"http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML\" xmlns:p1=\"http://pubmed.gov/pub-one\" xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\">SETTING: Community.</p><p xmlns:mml=\"http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML\" xmlns:p1=\"http://pubmed.gov/pub-one\" xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\">PARTICIPANTS: 573 adults with MS (progressive MS n = 142; RRMS n = 431).</p><p xmlns:mml=\"http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML\" xmlns:p1=\"http://pubmed.gov/pub-one\" xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\">INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.</p><p xmlns:mml=\"http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML\" xmlns:p1=\"http://pubmed.gov/pub-one\" xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\">MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Average pain intensity was measured by an 11-point numerical rating scale, and pain interference was measured by the PROMIS Pain Interference Short-Form.</p><p xmlns:mml=\"http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML\" xmlns:p1=\"http://pubmed.gov/pub-one\" xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\">RESULTS: Participants with progressive MS reported moderate average pain intensity (3.22 ± 2.50) and elevated pain interference (T-score of 55.55 ± 9.13). They did not differ significantly from those with RRMS in average pain intensity or pain interference. Common factors associated with higher average pain intensity were more severe disability, lower education level, being unemployed, and current smoking. In those with progressive MS, older age was associated with lower average pain intensity.</p><p xmlns:mml=\"http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML\" xmlns:p1=\"http://pubmed.gov/pub-one\" xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\">CONCLUSIONS: Pain intensity and interference are similar across MS types. In addition to assessing and treating pain, it is important to screen for modifiable pain-related factors such as smoking cessation in this population.</p><p>PMID:<a href=\"https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34048792/?utm_source=Other&amp;utm_medium=rss&amp;utm_campaign=pubmed-2&amp;utm_content=10guX6I3SqrbUeeLKSTD6FCRM44ewnrN2MKKTQLLPMHB4xNsZU&amp;fc=20210216052009&amp;ff=20210529054008&amp;v=2.14.4\">34048792</a> | DOI:<a href=\"https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2021.05.003\">10.1016/j.apmr.2021.05.003</a></p></div>",
            "link": "https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34048792/#x3D;Other&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=10guX6I3SqrbUeeLKSTD6FCRM44ewnrN2MKKTQLLPMHB4xNsZU&fc&#x",
            "published_date": "2021-01-10T00:00:00Z",
            "source": "PubMed",
            "publisher": "Elsevier BV",
            "container_title": "Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation",
            "authors": [
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/313/",
                    "family_name": "Alschuler",
                    "given_name": "Kevin N.",
                    "ORCID": null
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/3745/",
                    "family_name": "Ehde",
                    "given_name": "Dawn M.",
                    "ORCID": null
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/8705/",
                    "family_name": "Jensen",
                    "given_name": "Mark P.",
                    "ORCID": null
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/14746/",
                    "family_name": "Turner",
                    "given_name": "Aaron P.",
                    "ORCID": null
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/20267/",
                    "family_name": "Herring",
                    "given_name": "Tracy E.",
                    "ORCID": "http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5099-2365"
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/20268/",
                    "family_name": "Knowles",
                    "given_name": "Lindsey M.",
                    "ORCID": "http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6812-9842"
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/33667/",
                    "family_name": "Phillips",
                    "given_name": "Kala M.",
                    "ORCID": null
                }
            ],
            "relevant": null,
            "ml_prediction_gnb": false,
            "ml_prediction_lr": false,
            "discovery_date": "2021-05-29T09:40:10Z",
            "noun_phrases": [
                "Pain Intensity",
                "Pain Interference",
                "People",
                "Progressive Multiple Sclerosis",
                "People",
                "Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis"
            ],
            "doi": "10.1016/j.apmr.2021.05.003",
            "access": "restricted",
            "takeaways": " Pain intensity and interference are similar across MS types, study finds . Common factors associated with higher average pain intensity were more severe disability, lower education level, being unemployed, and current smoking ."
        },
        {
            "article_id": 2098,
            "title": "Registry of patients with multiple sclerosis and COVID-19 infection in Saudi Arabia",
            "summary": "<div><p>Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2021 May 7;52:103004. doi: 10.1016/j.msard.2021.103004. Online ahead of print.</p><p><b>ABSTRACT</b></p><p xmlns:mml=\"http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML\" xmlns:p1=\"http://pubmed.gov/pub-one\" xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\">BACKGROUND: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly spread and developed as a pandemic threatening global health. Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS)-an autoimmune demyelinating inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS)-are predominantly treated with immunomodulatory/immunosuppressive disease-modifying therapies (DMTs), which can increase the risk of infection. Therefore, there is concern that these patients may have a higher risk of COVID-19. In response to growing concerns of neurologists and patients, this study aimed to determine the prevalence, severity, and possible complications of COVID-19 infection in patients with MS in Saudi Arabia (SA).</p><p xmlns:mml=\"http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML\" xmlns:p1=\"http://pubmed.gov/pub-one\" xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\">METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, demographic and clinical data were obtained from patients residing in SA with MS who had a positive result for COVID-19 per reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction test or viral gene sequencing, using respiratory or plasma samples. Comparison of COVID-19 severity groups was performed using one-way ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis test for numerical variables and Chi-squared test for categorical variables.</p><p xmlns:mml=\"http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML\" xmlns:p1=\"http://pubmed.gov/pub-one\" xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\">RESULTS: Seventy patients with MS and COVID-19 (71% female) were included in this analysis. Of the 53 (75.7%) patients receiving a DMT at the time of COVID-19 infection, the most frequently used DMTs were fingolimod (25%) and interferon-beta (25%). Nine (13%) patients had MS relapse and were treated with intravenous methylprednisolone in the four weeks before COVID-19 infection. The most common symptoms at the peak of COVID-19 infection were fever (46%), fatigue (37%), and headache (36%). Symptoms lasted for a mean duration of 8.7 days; all symptomatic patients recovered and no deaths were reported. COVID-19 severity was categorized in three groups: asymptomatic (n = 12), mild-not requiring hospitalization (n = 48), and requiring hospitalization (n = 10; two of whom were admitted to the intensive care unit [ICU]). Between the three groups, comparison of age, body mass index , Expanded Disability Severity Score , MS disease duration, and DMT use at the time of infection showed no significant differences. A higher percentage of patients who were admitted to hospital or the ICU (40%; p = 0.026) presented with an MS relapse within the prior four weeks compared with those who were asymptomatic or had a mild infection (both 8.3%).</p><p xmlns:mml=\"http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML\" xmlns:p1=\"http://pubmed.gov/pub-one\" xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\">CONCLUSION: These findings present a reassuring picture regarding COVID-19 infection in patients with MS. However, patients with MS who have had a relapse in the preceding four weeks (requiring glucocorticoid treatment) may have an increased risk of severe COVID-19.</p><p>PMID:<a href=\"https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34049217/?utm_source=Other&amp;utm_medium=rss&amp;utm_campaign=pubmed-2&amp;utm_content=10guX6I3SqrbUeeLKSTD6FCRM44ewnrN2MKKTQLLPMHB4xNsZU&amp;fc=20210216052009&amp;ff=20210529054008&amp;v=2.14.4\">34049217</a> | DOI:<a href=\"https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2021.103004\">10.1016/j.msard.2021.103004</a></p></div>",
            "link": "https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34049217/#x3D;Other&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=10guX6I3SqrbUeeLKSTD6FCRM44ewnrN2MKKTQLLPMHB4xNsZU&fc&#x",
            "published_date": "2021-01-07T00:00:00Z",
            "source": "PubMed",
            "publisher": "Elsevier BV",
            "container_title": "Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders",
            "authors": [
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/4615/",
                    "family_name": "Aljarallah",
                    "given_name": "Salman",
                    "ORCID": null
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/9327/",
                    "family_name": "Kedah",
                    "given_name": "Hanaa",
                    "ORCID": null
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/9533/",
                    "family_name": "Alshamrani",
                    "given_name": "Foziah",
                    "ORCID": null
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/9538/",
                    "family_name": "Alamri",
                    "given_name": "Abdulla",
                    "ORCID": null
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/21993/",
                    "family_name": "Makkawi",
                    "given_name": "Seraj",
                    "ORCID": null
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/24341/",
                    "family_name": "Alnajashi",
                    "given_name": "Hind",
                    "ORCID": "http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6096-3667"
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/24342/",
                    "family_name": "AlJumah",
                    "given_name": "Mohammed",
                    "ORCID": "http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9820-9579"
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/24343/",
                    "family_name": "Almuaigel",
                    "given_name": "Mohammad",
                    "ORCID": "http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6161-8179"
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/24344/",
                    "family_name": "Almalik",
                    "given_name": "Yaser",
                    "ORCID": "http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9239-2691"
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/24345/",
                    "family_name": "Alsalman",
                    "given_name": "Sadiq",
                    "ORCID": null
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/24346/",
                    "family_name": "Almejally",
                    "given_name": "Mousa",
                    "ORCID": null
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/24347/",
                    "family_name": "Qureshi",
                    "given_name": "Shireen",
                    "ORCID": null
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/24348/",
                    "family_name": "AlKhawajah",
                    "given_name": "Nuha",
                    "ORCID": "http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1992-0654"
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/24349/",
                    "family_name": "Alotaibi",
                    "given_name": "Hessa",
                    "ORCID": null
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/24350/",
                    "family_name": "Saeedi",
                    "given_name": "Jameelah",
                    "ORCID": null
                }
            ],
            "relevant": null,
            "ml_prediction_gnb": false,
            "ml_prediction_lr": false,
            "discovery_date": "2021-05-29T09:40:10Z",
            "noun_phrases": [
                "Registry",
                "patients",
                "multiple sclerosis",
                "COVID-19 infection",
                "Saudi Arabia"
            ],
            "doi": "10.1016/j.msard.2021.103004",
            "access": "open",
            "takeaways": " Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are predominantly treated with immunomodulatory/immunosuppressive disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) There is concern that these patients may have a higher risk of COVID-19 . Study aimed to determine prevalence, severity, and possible complications of infection in patients with MS in Saudi Arabia ."
        },
        {
            "article_id": 2097,
            "title": "Gene-Based Tests of a Genome-Wide Association Study Dataset Highlight Novel Multiple Sclerosis Risk Genes",
            "summary": "<div><p>Front Neurosci. 2021 May 11;15:614528. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2021.614528. eCollection 2021.</p><p><b>ABSTRACT</b></p><p xmlns:mml=\"http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML\" xmlns:p1=\"http://pubmed.gov/pub-one\" xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\">Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disorder influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Many studies have provided insights into genetic factors' contribution to MS via large-scale genome-wide association study (GWAS) datasets. However, genetic variants identified to date do not adequately explain genetic risks for MS. This study hypothesized that novel MS risk genes could be identified by analyzing the MS-GWAS dataset using gene-based tests. We analyzed a GWAS dataset consisting of 9,772 MS cases and 17,376 healthy controls of European descent. We performed gene-based tests of 464,357 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using two methods (PLINK and VEGAS2) and identified 28 shared genes satisfied <i>p</i>-value &lt; 4.56 × 10<sup>-6</sup>. In further gene expression analysis, ten of the 28 genes were significantly differentially expressed in the MS case-control gene expression omnibus (GEO) database. GALC and HLA-DOB showed the most prominent differences in gene expression (two- and three-fold, respectively) between MS patients and healthy controls. In conclusion, our results reveal more information about MS hereditary characteristics and provide a basis for further studies.</p><p>PMID:<a href=\"https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34045940/?utm_source=Other&amp;utm_medium=rss&amp;utm_campaign=pubmed-2&amp;utm_content=10guX6I3SqrbUeeLKSTD6FCRM44ewnrN2MKKTQLLPMHB4xNsZU&amp;fc=20210216052009&amp;ff=20210529054008&amp;v=2.14.4\">34045940</a> | PMC:<a href=\"https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/PMC8144314/?utm_source=Other&amp;utm_medium=rss&amp;utm_campaign=pubmed-2&amp;utm_content=10guX6I3SqrbUeeLKSTD6FCRM44ewnrN2MKKTQLLPMHB4xNsZU&amp;fc=20210216052009&amp;ff=20210529054008&amp;v=2.14.4\">PMC8144314</a> | DOI:<a href=\"https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.614528\">10.3389/fnins.2021.614528</a></p></div>",
            "link": "https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34045940/#x3D;Other&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=10guX6I3SqrbUeeLKSTD6FCRM44ewnrN2MKKTQLLPMHB4xNsZU&fc&#x",
            "published_date": "2021-05-10T23:00:00Z",
            "source": "PubMed",
            "publisher": "Frontiers Media SA",
            "container_title": "Frontiers in Neuroscience",
            "authors": [
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/6694/",
                    "family_name": "Liang",
                    "given_name": "Yan",
                    "ORCID": null
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/17533/",
                    "family_name": "Xu",
                    "given_name": "Fang",
                    "ORCID": null
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/32019/",
                    "family_name": "Jiang",
                    "given_name": "Wei",
                    "ORCID": null
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/32020/",
                    "family_name": "Cui",
                    "given_name": "Pan",
                    "ORCID": null
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/32022/",
                    "family_name": "Li",
                    "given_name": "He",
                    "ORCID": null
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/34117/",
                    "family_name": "Hou",
                    "given_name": "Xiaodan",
                    "ORCID": null
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/34118/",
                    "family_name": "Zhang",
                    "given_name": "Xiyue",
                    "ORCID": null
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/34119/",
                    "family_name": "Xing",
                    "given_name": "Gebeili",
                    "ORCID": null
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/34120/",
                    "family_name": "Wang",
                    "given_name": "Xuejiao",
                    "ORCID": null
                }
            ],
            "relevant": null,
            "ml_prediction_gnb": false,
            "ml_prediction_lr": false,
            "discovery_date": "2021-05-29T09:40:10Z",
            "noun_phrases": [
                "Gene-Based Tests",
                "a Genome-Wide Association Study Dataset Highlight Novel Multiple Sclerosis Risk Genes"
            ],
            "doi": "10.3389/fnins.2021.614528",
            "access": "open",
            "takeaways": " Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disorder influenced by genetic and environmental factors . Study hypothesized novel MS risk genes could be identified by analyzing MS-GWAS dataset using gene-based tests . GALC and HLA-DOB showed the most prominent differences in gene expression (two- and three-fold, respectively) between MS patients and healthy controls ."
        },
        {
            "article_id": 2096,
            "title": "Semaphorins in Adult Nervous System Plasticity and Disease",
            "summary": "<div><p>Front Synaptic Neurosci. 2021 May 11;13:672891. doi: 10.3389/fnsyn.2021.672891. eCollection 2021.</p><p><b>ABSTRACT</b></p><p xmlns:mml=\"http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML\" xmlns:p1=\"http://pubmed.gov/pub-one\" xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\">Semaphorins, originally discovered as guidance cues for developing axons, are involved in many processes that shape the nervous system during development, from neuronal proliferation and migration to neuritogenesis and synapse formation. Interestingly, the expression of many Semaphorins persists after development. For instance, Semaphorin 3A is a component of perineuronal nets, the extracellular matrix structures enwrapping certain types of neurons in the adult CNS, which contribute to the closure of the critical period for plasticity. Semaphorin 3G and 4C play a crucial role in the control of adult hippocampal connectivity and memory processes, and Semaphorin 5A and 7A regulate adult neurogenesis. This evidence points to a role of Semaphorins in the regulation of adult neuronal plasticity. In this review, we address the distribution of Semaphorins in the adult nervous system and we discuss their function in physiological and pathological processes.</p><p>PMID:<a href=\"https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34045951/?utm_source=Other&amp;utm_medium=rss&amp;utm_campaign=pubmed-2&amp;utm_content=10guX6I3SqrbUeeLKSTD6FCRM44ewnrN2MKKTQLLPMHB4xNsZU&amp;fc=20210216052009&amp;ff=20210529054008&amp;v=2.14.4\">34045951</a> | PMC:<a href=\"https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/PMC8148045/?utm_source=Other&amp;utm_medium=rss&amp;utm_campaign=pubmed-2&amp;utm_content=10guX6I3SqrbUeeLKSTD6FCRM44ewnrN2MKKTQLLPMHB4xNsZU&amp;fc=20210216052009&amp;ff=20210529054008&amp;v=2.14.4\">PMC8148045</a> | DOI:<a href=\"https://doi.org/10.3389/fnsyn.2021.672891\">10.3389/fnsyn.2021.672891</a></p></div>",
            "link": "https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34045951/#x3D;Other&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=10guX6I3SqrbUeeLKSTD6FCRM44ewnrN2MKKTQLLPMHB4xNsZU&fc&#x",
            "published_date": "2021-05-10T23:00:00Z",
            "source": "PubMed",
            "publisher": "Frontiers Media SA",
            "container_title": "Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience",
            "authors": [
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/21950/",
                    "family_name": "Carulli",
                    "given_name": "Daniela",
                    "ORCID": null
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/21951/",
                    "family_name": "de Winter",
                    "given_name": "Fred",
                    "ORCID": null
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/21952/",
                    "family_name": "Verhaagen",
                    "given_name": "Joost",
                    "ORCID": null
                }
            ],
            "relevant": null,
            "ml_prediction_gnb": false,
            "ml_prediction_lr": false,
            "discovery_date": "2021-05-29T09:40:10Z",
            "noun_phrases": [
                "Semaphorins",
                "Adult Nervous System Plasticity",
                "Disease"
            ],
            "doi": "10.3389/fnsyn.2021.672891",
            "access": "open",
            "takeaways": " Front Synaptic Neurosci. 2021 May 11;13:672891. eCollection 2021.Front Synaptic neurosci.com ."
        },
        {
            "article_id": 2095,
            "title": "Teriflunomide in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: outcomes by age and pre-treatment status",
            "summary": "<div><p>Ther Adv Neurol Disord. 2021 May 18;14:17562864211005588. doi: 10.1177/17562864211005588. eCollection 2021.</p><p><b>ABSTRACT</b></p><p xmlns:mml=\"http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML\" xmlns:p1=\"http://pubmed.gov/pub-one\" xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\">BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To investigate effectiveness and safety of teriflunomide (14 mg once daily) in association with age and pre-treatment in unselected MS patients.</p><p xmlns:mml=\"http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML\" xmlns:p1=\"http://pubmed.gov/pub-one\" xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\">METHODS: Prespecified analysis of a non-interventional, prospective, real-world study in Germany.</p><p xmlns:mml=\"http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML\" xmlns:p1=\"http://pubmed.gov/pub-one\" xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\">RESULTS: A total of 558 (49.5%) patients were above 45 years old, and 593 patients (52.6%) had been pre-treated within 6 months prior to teriflunomide. Baseline Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) was higher with older age, with lower number of relapses. Relapse rate decreased in all age groups, and in both treatment-naïve (0.82 ± 0.73 at baseline; 0.25 ± 0.55 under teriflunomide) and pre-treated (from 0.48 ± 0.76; 0.22 ± 0.50) patients after 12 months compared with the year before teriflunomide initiation. EDSS remained stable in patients of all age groups as well as in therapy-naïve and pre-treated patients over 24 months. The percentage of patients with adverse events (AEs) ranged between 29.2% (age group &gt;25-35) and 38.9% (age group &gt;55-65), with an increased discontinuation rate (most commonly due to diarrhoea, alopecia and nausea) in the higher age groups. AE rates were lower in pre-treated compared with treatment-naïve patients.</p><p xmlns:mml=\"http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML\" xmlns:p1=\"http://pubmed.gov/pub-one\" xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\">CONCLUSION: Overall, patients of all age groups including older patients, and irrespective of pre-treatment, benefit from teriflunomide treatment in routine clinical practice.</p><p xmlns:mml=\"http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML\" xmlns:p1=\"http://pubmed.gov/pub-one\" xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\">REGISTRATION: BfArM public study database number 2075.</p><p>PMID:<a href=\"https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34046085/?utm_source=Other&amp;utm_medium=rss&amp;utm_campaign=pubmed-2&amp;utm_content=10guX6I3SqrbUeeLKSTD6FCRM44ewnrN2MKKTQLLPMHB4xNsZU&amp;fc=20210216052009&amp;ff=20210529054008&amp;v=2.14.4\">34046085</a> | PMC:<a href=\"https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/PMC8135216/?utm_source=Other&amp;utm_medium=rss&amp;utm_campaign=pubmed-2&amp;utm_content=10guX6I3SqrbUeeLKSTD6FCRM44ewnrN2MKKTQLLPMHB4xNsZU&amp;fc=20210216052009&amp;ff=20210529054008&amp;v=2.14.4\">PMC8135216</a> | DOI:<a href=\"https://doi.org/10.1177/17562864211005588\">10.1177/17562864211005588</a></p></div>",
            "link": "https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34046085/#x3D;Other&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=10guX6I3SqrbUeeLKSTD6FCRM44ewnrN2MKKTQLLPMHB4xNsZU&fc&#x",
            "published_date": "2021-05-17T23:00:00Z",
            "source": "PubMed",
            "publisher": "SAGE Publications",
            "container_title": "Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders",
            "authors": [
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/1672/",
                    "family_name": "Chan",
                    "given_name": "Andrew",
                    "ORCID": null
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/3484/",
                    "family_name": "Engelmann",
                    "given_name": "Ulrich",
                    "ORCID": null
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/46169/",
                    "family_name": "Kallmann",
                    "given_name": "Boris A.",
                    "ORCID": null
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/46170/",
                    "family_name": "Ries",
                    "given_name": "Stefan",
                    "ORCID": null
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/46171/",
                    "family_name": "Kullmann",
                    "given_name": "Jennifer S.",
                    "ORCID": null
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/46172/",
                    "family_name": "Quint",
                    "given_name": "Laura M.",
                    "ORCID": null
                }
            ],
            "relevant": null,
            "ml_prediction_gnb": false,
            "ml_prediction_lr": false,
            "discovery_date": "2021-05-29T09:40:10Z",
            "noun_phrases": [
                "relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis",
                "age",
                "treatment status"
            ],
            "doi": "10.1177/17562864211005588",
            "access": "open",
            "takeaways": " Baseline Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) was higher with older age, with lower number of relapses . Relapse rate decreased in all age groups, and in both treatment-naïve and pre-treated patients after 12 months compared with the year before teriflunomide initiation ."
        },
        {
            "article_id": 2094,
            "title": "Atypical inflammatory demyelinating syndrome with central and peripheral nerve involvement",
            "summary": "<div><p>Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2021 Mar 26;51:102926. doi: 10.1016/j.msard.2021.102926. Online ahead of print.</p><p><b>ABSTRACT</b></p><p xmlns:mml=\"http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML\" xmlns:p1=\"http://pubmed.gov/pub-one\" xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\">We report a patient who has peripheral demyelination in the form of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) with central demyelination following a relapsing-remitting disease course. The patient developed bilateral sequential optic neuritis predating the diagnosis of CIPD, then developed a profound brainstem syndrome with ataxia, dysarthria, a complex eye movement disorder, visual disturbance and urinary incontinence. Interval imaging fulfilled McDonald criteria for multiple sclerosis (MS) with a right parieto-occipital tumefactive lesion showing contrast enhancement and new lesions in the right temporal white matter and midbrain tegmentum. Oligoclonal bands (OCBs) were matched and serum antibodies against aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) were negative. Genetic sequence analysis and deletion/duplication testing revealed variants of uncertain significance with compound heterozygosity for point mutations in two genes, DYNC1H1 and SH3TC2, which are associated with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease though the patient was negative for known CMT mutations. The patient responded poorly to steroids and regular intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) but clinically improved following aggressive immunomodulatory therapy with pulsed steroids and plasmapheresis, followed by Rituximab. Combined central and peripheral demyelination (CCPD) is rare. Autoimmune mechanisms are postulated in the pathogenesis. Whether overlap of central and pe- ripheral demyelination is coincidental or caused by a shared epitope in both the peripheral and central nervous systems still remains to be elucidated. There is no clear therapeutic consensus in the treatment of both central and peripheral demyelination, though immunomodulating treatment strategies may minimise disability and improve prognosis.</p><p>PMID:<a href=\"https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34049139/?utm_source=Other&amp;utm_medium=rss&amp;utm_campaign=pubmed-2&amp;utm_content=10guX6I3SqrbUeeLKSTD6FCRM44ewnrN2MKKTQLLPMHB4xNsZU&amp;fc=20210216052009&amp;ff=20210529054008&amp;v=2.14.4\">34049139</a> | DOI:<a href=\"https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2021.102926\">10.1016/j.msard.2021.102926</a></p></div>",
            "link": "https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34049139/#x3D;Other&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=pubmed-2&utm_content=10guX6I3SqrbUeeLKSTD6FCRM44ewnrN2MKKTQLLPMHB4xNsZU&fc&#x",
            "published_date": "2021-01-06T00:00:00Z",
            "source": "PubMed",
            "publisher": "Elsevier BV",
            "container_title": "Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders",
            "authors": [
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/6822/",
                    "family_name": "Chaudhry",
                    "given_name": "Vinay",
                    "ORCID": null
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/16905/",
                    "family_name": "Silber",
                    "given_name": "Eli",
                    "ORCID": null
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/46166/",
                    "family_name": "Farag",
                    "given_name": "Mena",
                    "ORCID": null
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/46167/",
                    "family_name": "Sibtain",
                    "given_name": "Naomi",
                    "ORCID": null
                },
                {
                    "url": "http://api.gregory-ms.com/authors/46168/",
                    "family_name": "Burge",
                    "given_name": "James",
                    "ORCID": null
                }
            ],
            "relevant": null,
            "ml_prediction_gnb": false,
            "ml_prediction_lr": false,
            "discovery_date": "2021-05-29T09:40:09Z",
            "noun_phrases": [
                "Atypical inflammatory demyelinating syndrome",
                "central and peripheral nerve involvement"
            ],
            "doi": "10.1016/j.msard.2021.102926",
            "access": "restricted",
            "takeaways": " Combined central and peripheral demyelination (CCPD) is rare . Autoimmune mechanisms are postulated in the pathogenesis . There is no clear therapeutic consensus in the treatment of both ."
        }
    ]
}